Application of SCD Probiotics Technology
For Livestock Production (165)
Copyright © 2008 SCD Probiotics
SCD Probiotics Technology
Sustainable Community Development, LLC ("SCD"), based in Kansas City, Missouri, USA, is
a company specializing in natural microbial-based products and services for human health,
agriculture industry, industrial waste management, and environmental sustainability.
Through 10 years of research and development, SCD has selected 14 different microbial
strains for production of various probiotic products. These include lactic acid bacteria such
as Lactobacillus and Streptococcus; yeast such as Saccharomyces; photosynthetic bacteria such
as Rhodopseudomonas; and other beneficial bacteria such as Bacillus.
SCD Probiotics Technology and Certifications
In essence, the SCD Probiotic Technology is a consortium of lactic acid bacteria,
phototrophic bacteria, nutritional yeast, and other beneficial microorganisms. The SCD
consortium culture synergistically works to inhibit the growth of pathogenic harmful
bacteria through competitive exclusion. In addition to competitive exclusion effects, the
metabolites produced by the consortia and its chemical characteristics contribute to
antimicrobial properties and health benefits. Average pH of the product ranges from 3.2-
3.5. Some products with SCD Probiotic Technology microorganisms consortium, can for
instance, include Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. fermentum, L. plantarum,
Rhodoseudomonas palustris, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Streptococcus thermophilus, etc. These
microorganisms have been known to be associated with human foods and are ubiqitously
used in manufacturing of probiotic dietary supplement products for human, animal, and
While the traditional meaning of the word “probiotic” is applied to human and animal
digestive microorganisms, SCD is on the cutting edge of developing technology to apply the
concept of “probiotics” to many fields globally including waste water treatment, odor
control, environmental bioremediation, agriculture, pest control, mold remediation,
industrial and home agriculture, aquaculture, gardening, prevention of skin diseases, turf
grass, composting and other fields.
Information about SCD Probiotic Technology can be found at www.scdprobiotics.com.
In general, this product is manufactured under high and strict quality control standards.
Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) provides certifiers, growers, manufacturers, and
suppliers an independent review of products intended for use in certified organic
production, handling, and processing (Organic Materials Review Institute, 2011). OMRI’s
services are directed to all aspects of the organic industry with a primary focus on the
decision makers who deal with the compliance status of generic meterials and brand name
products. With the OMRI Generic Materials List and OMRI Products List, OMRI provides
guidance on the suitability of material inputs under the USDA National Organic Program
standards (Organic Materials Review Institute, 2011). Many SCD products are listed with
OMRI as “safe for use in organic production.” Please visit www.omri.org for more
information and to verify SCD’s registered status.
SCD’s compliance with the above-mentioned regulatory agencies illustrates the safety and
quality of the products manufactured as well as routine testing that has been conducted
over the past two years. SCD products are routinely tested both in house and by third
party independent laboratories for the incidence of pathogenic activity, heavy metals, and
mycotoxins. Certificates of analysis are on the SCD website.
ProBio Balance Plus™ is recommended for use in livestock, agriculture, and environment
applications. It can be used to manufacture secondary products such as SCD Bio Klean™
and SCD Odor Away™ for specific applications in the area of odor control and
environmental cleanliness. The secondary products are as below.
SCD Bio Klean™: This is an all-natural industrial cleaner containing exclusive microbes and
their metabolites, which is recommended for treatment of industrial wastewater, grease,
grime and dirt. SCD Bio Klean™ is an environmentally safe and uniquely effective biological
SCD Odor Away™:This is an all-natural biological odor reducer containing exclusive
microbes and their metabolites. SCD Odor Away™ is environmentally safe and distinctly
effective at decreasing odors in livestock lagoon, holding areas and pens, waste treatment
facilities, and composting operations.
ProBio Food™ is recommended for use in livestock and human health applications. It can
be used to manufacture secondary products such as SCD Bio Livestock®, and SCD Herbal
Probiotics™ for specific applications in the area of animal productivity and human health.
The secondary products are as below.
SCD Bio Livestock®:This is an all-natural biological probiotic feed additive containing
exclusive microbes and their metabolites. SCD Bio Livestock® is distinctly effective at
improving the health of animals and avoids the need for antibiotics.
Livestock Applications of SCD Probiotic Technology
A number of positive results have been reported when Probiotics has been introduced to
livestock production. An experiment done by Yongzhen and Weijiong (2006), showed a
reduction in ammonia concentration in ppm of 69.70% when broilers and laying hens were
given Probitics treatment in both the water and feed. The main contributors to foul odors
are ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, mercaptan, and methylmercaptan. Higher concentrations of
ammonia not only influence the normal growth of animals, but also cause diseases.
Probiotic treatment reduces the concentration of ammonia, thus reducing the incidence of
diseases and improving the growth of the animal, including an increased egg production,
weight gain, and efficiency of feed utilization (Yongzhen and Weijiong, 2006).
In recent years, numerous reports in the literature can be found pertaining to the uses of
probiotics or direct-fed microbial (DFM) bacteria, the addition of useful microorganism
cultures to diet or drinking water and to improve production performance and quality of
products. Studies showed great increases in body weight gain among broilers after only
five weeks. Probiotic was introduced into the animals feed in three different ways:
Anjum et. al (2006), showed great increases in body weight gain among broilers after only five weeks. Probiotic was introduced into the animals feed in three different ways:
- 1ml/L EM in drinking water
- 30g/Kg EM in biofeed
- Both 1mL/L in drinking water and 30g/Kg in biofeed
After five weeks of treatment, average body weight gain in the controlled group, Probiotic
solution, Biofeed, and Probiotic Solution + Biofeed were 864, 1,217, 1,207, and 1,361 grams,
respectively. Another study tested the effects of Probiotics as an alternative to antibiotics
(AB). The broilers given 30g/kg of Probiotics combined with AB had the greatest weight
gain when compared to those not given any Probiotics or AB. Even broilers given
Probiotics without AB had great weight gains. At 42 days of age, the control broilers had
gained 2065.99 grams of weight compared to those with Probiotics in their feed at 30g/kg
and no AB with a gain of 2091.70. A decrease in serum cholesterol was also seen. Even
though detail mechanisms of Probiotics has yet been identified from these findings,
significant production performances have been reported to be a function of improving feed
bioavailability, balancing gastrointestinal microorganisms, and enhancing immunity when
probiotic strains are ingested.
The effect of Probiotics for treatment of diarrheic disease in piglets had been studied. It
was found that antimicrobial properties of Probiotics increased with dosage. The growth of
E. coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Shigella, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and C. perfringens, including
antibiotic resistant strains, were completely inhibited when Probiotics was used at 10mL.
The results differed significantly from the controls (distilled water and distilled water with
pH of 3.5). Probiotics was effective in treating diarrhea in piglets due to complicated
infection of enteric bacteria. Efficacy of Probiotics in treating diarrheic disease in piglets did
not differ significantly from conventional antibiotics such as Colistin.
After 40 days, the body weight gain of the Probiotics treated cow was significantly higher
than the controlled animal (Zhengao, 2006). Average increase of 1kg per day of milk
production was observed in Probiotics treated animal. In addition to increase milk
production, the Baume scale also increased 1-2 degrees compared to the control. Dahal
(2006) reported that goat body weight gain increased 10% when compared to the control.
Body weight gain in pig was not significantly noticed. However, Zhengao’s studies has shown that Probiotics treated swine gained 38.5% more body weight than the control within
67 days of treatment, while ratio of forge/pork decreased by 2.8%.
Ammonia is not the only contributor to odor in agricultural applications. Biological Oxygen
Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) also caused an increase in odor.
BOD and COD are often seen as problem in the wastewater industry, where the primary
purpose is to remove the suspended and soluble organic constituents measured as COD
and BOD, as well as reduce fecal coliform.
Studies were conducted to determine the effect of Probiotics technology for wastewater
treatment around the world (Wood et al., 2004). In essence, studies indicated reductions in
BOD, COD, pathogens, and total coliforms in wastewater treated with Probiotics solution.
Wood et at. (2004) applied Probiotics solution at a rate of 1:10,000 to the wastewater.
Foul odors and total coliform were reduced significantly when wastewater was treated with
SCD solution. Average sulfide removal as well as sulfates removal were significantly
increased by 70% and 110% (Wood et al., 2004). In addition, Probiotics treatment
significantly decreased ammonia in the water at the plant influent from an average of 1244
mg/l to 194 mg/l and at the plant effluent from 614 mg/l to 214 mg/l. Average fecal
coliforms removal at the plant was significantly increased by 3 times after treatment with
Probiotics (Wood et al., 2004).
Similar results have been shown in recent studies carried out in a sewer system of the city
of Cartagena (Correa, 2008)
There had been studies with swine waste management using Probiotics technology. Two by
three latin square experimental design was used for the experiment with two different
seasons as seasonal effects. Comparing to control, BOD and COD content were
significantly decreased when Probiotics solution at different dilution, including 1:1000,
1:5,000, and 1:10,000 were used. Consistent outcome was found with nitrogen and
phosphorus content. Best result was obtained when Probiotics solution was used in
conjunction with sediment screening and aerobic pretreatment. The reduction of BOD,
COD, N, and P was affected by temperature, particularly cold environment (10-15oC).
A “pathogen” is defined as a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host
(Wikipedia, 2006). Some harmful pathogens include Escherichia coli, which can lead to
urinary tract infection and food poisoning. Salmonella leads to food poisoning and
Staphylococcus aureus can lead to toxic shock syndrome (Wikipedia, 2006). Clostridium
perfringens can also lead to food poisoning. These pathogens are extremely toxic and
typically found in foods that are improperly sanitized (Todar, 2002). The above mentioned
pathogenic bacterias are included in those routinely tested at SCD. For the past two years,
every batch of SCD Probiotics produced was sent to a third party laboratory for pathogen
screening. The species tested includes; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium
perfringens, and Salmonella. Throughout the past two years of testing, the incidence of
pathogenic activity among each species has been negative. The table below shows an
average of the results (n=16).
Table 1: Results of Microbial Testing - Pathogen Screening
Physical and Chemical Contaminations
When tested for heavy metals, SCD Probiotics has shown levels below 10 parts per million
(ppm) for the past two years. The heavy metals tested include; arsenic, cadmium, iron, lead,
mercury, and nickel. Lead and mercury have been shown to cause multiple health problems
when ingested in drinking water, foods that have not been properly cleaned and even from
houses with lead-based paint. People are typically exposed to mercury from vapors due to
a spill or break in elemental mercury that results from warm, un-ventilated spaces
(Environmental Protection Agency, 2006).
SCD Probiotics conducted a nutritional analysis test to verify that it is suitable for
commercializing as dietary supplement and the results are shown in the table below.
Table 2: Test Results of SCD Probiotics for Heavy Metals And Nutritonal Analysis
Wikipedia (2006), defines “mycotoxin” as a toxin produced by a fungus under specific
conditions of moisture and temperature. Mycotoxins can result in obvious problems making
people and animals sick. Mycotoxins are structurally diverse secondary metabolites of fungi
that grow on a variety of feeds and foods consumed by animals and man, respectively. Most
of the research has been conducted on aflatoxins, ochratoxins, T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol
(DON), trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone. Mycotoxins exhibit many different
biological effects in the animal and man. They can be carcinogenic, teratogenic, genotoxic,
hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, haematotoxic, immunosuppressive, estrogenic, and tremorgenic
or mutagenic (Dirheimer, 1998). Mycotoxins are usually a result from contaminated feed for animals, which results in contaminated meat for people (Wikipedia, 2006). SCD
Probiotics has shown results of <2 parts per billion (ppb) mycotoxins.
SCD Probiotics has been shown to be safe for use in the environment of animals and other
agricultural applications, such as waste treatment. From previous testing over two years,
the incidence of pathogenic activity, heavy metals, and mycotoxins has been non-detected or
zero. Furthermore, SCD Probiotics contain beneficial probiotic cultures that have been
used for years in foods for humans and animals. The probiotic cultures and Purple Non-
Sulfur Bacteria (PNSB) contained in SCD Probiotics product are safe and beneficial for
animal health. Probiotics have been widely used in dairy products, dietary supplements and
incorporated into livestock silage to enhance the intestinal health of the host. PNSB have
also been applied as animal feed due to the nutritious property of their biomass, which is
rich in high quality protein, vitamin and carotenoids.
SCD PROBIOTIC TECHNOLOGY BENEFIT ANALYSIS
The successful application of SCD Probiotic Technology is expected to have the following
impact on livestock applications
General Protocol for the use of SCD Probiotics in Livestock application:
- Reduce mortality in the farm
- Reduce or eliminate the use of antibiotics
- Control odors in animal housing as well as leachate lagoons
- Improve the feed conversion ratio
- Reduce sludge accumulation and coliforms in the lagoons
- Overall reduction in the cost
SCD Bio KleanTM should be used for over all cleanliness and to prevent contamination of the
environment with pathogens. The product is to be diluted 1:20 (5%) with water and all
equipments and housing structures are to be washed with this. The same dilution should be
sprayed on the bedding and also sprayed on the floor and walls of the animal houses. If the
farm employs a misting system it is recommended that SCD Bio KleanTM be added to the
water at a dilution of 1:5,000.
SCD Bio Livestock® should be added to the drinking water provided to the animals at a
dilution rate of 1:500 (0.2%). This can be done from early stages of the animal.
SCD Bio Livestock®, molasses, and commercial feed should be mixed at 1:1:20 ratio and
fermented for approximately 10 days at normal room temperature. This fermented is then
incorporated with commercial feed at 4% and fed to the animals.
SCD Bio Klean™ should be used for treating waste generated in the farm. The protocols
will vary depending on the farm conditions. Ask an SCD representative for protocols.
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